Aircraft refuelling and defueling operations (draining a fuel tank) are critical in terms of safety and cost of an aircraft fuelling shutdown. Refuelling of modern, civil and military aircraft is usually carried out using a pressure method, where a hose with a suitable coupling is tightly attached to a tank coupling (small aircraft can be refuelled without pressure, through a tank filler, using a fuel nozzle). Tanker trucks are used for refuelling operations. They are equipped with pumps, filters, measuring systems and hoses. Big airports are equipped with underground fuel pipelines supplying fuel to a hydrant in a manhole in an airport pavement. Refuelling is carried out via a pumping unit i.e. a dispenser connected to an underground hydrant with one hose, and to an aircraft fuel tank with the other hose. The hoses are often wound on special hose reels. Lifting platforms are also used. Hoses for pressure refuelling used at airfields must meet the requirements stated in the standards, which are higher than for industrial fuel hoses. Their main characteristics include a high working pressure of 20 bar, high resistance to jet fuel; they do not cause fuel contamination, are resistant to abrasion, ageing, kinking or delamination – separation of hose layers. Another essential requirement concerns electrical properties i.e. safe removal of electrical charges. It is achieved through an antistatic, conductive rubber outer layer or built-in copper wires. Fittings for the fuelling hoses are usually assembled with aluminium safety clamps. All complete hose assemblies undergo pressure and electrical resistance tests.